Self-efficacy theory states that the combination between the four factors of developing self-efficacy and three assessment processes used to interpret self-efficacy will determine the level of self-efficacy which directly effects the performance outcomes. An appreciation of the influence of culture on affective responses to pain and expectations for pain treatment is critical to culturally responsive management of people in pain the role of the health care provider is to help patients advocate for what feels appropriate for them within their cultural context r. Many patients experience unnecessary moderate to severe postoperative pain a knowledge of pain physiology can help nurses to address this aspect of care.
Some research indicates that catastrophizing might best be viewed from the perspective of hierarchical levels of analysis, where social factors and social goals may play a role in the development and maintenance of catastrophizing, whereas appraisal-related processes may point to the mechanisms that link catastrophizing to pain experience 3. This specific class of behaviour should be separated from the general class of pain behaviour because it is a critical factor in pain experience and in pain treatment key areas are the use of prescribed and over‐the‐counter medications, visits to general practitioners, and repeat and routine visits to pain clinics. However, findings of several rigorous studies reveal that inter-individual differences in chronic pain processing is due not so much to endogenous gene-based differences in pain neuroregulation as it is to the mutual influences of biological, lived experience, and sociocultural factors (goodman, 2000. A phenomena known as the pain-prone individual exists in that the physical pain one experiences is a form of unexpressed or unacknowledged depression the pain-prone individual is more likely to be female, as major depressive disorder occurs about twice as often in women as it does in men.
Pain can result from conditioned fear reactions that persist even after the resolution of pain , phobic reactions to pain and to nonpainful activities , and posttraumatic stress disorder [45. Risk factors become more influential during particular stages of life and can affect individuals differently depending on their own unique experiences for most, the key is a healthy balance between risk factors and protective factors. Successful interventions tailor programmes to individual needs, account for personal levels of fitness, allow for personal control of the activity and its outcomes, and provide for social support. The biopsychosocial model further accounts for the bidirectional influences of the biological, psychological, and social aspects of pain with, for example, psychological factors influencing biology by changing the production of hormones (eg, cortisol), and brain structures and processes (turk & monarch, 2002.
Parents, for example, may respond to a child's pain in a certain manner, setting a foundational pain response for an individual that may influence future pain experiences also, societal and medical care systems can impact the pain experience. Experience, words, and social interaction are linked fritz heider (1958) developed attribution theory to focus on the ways people infer the causes of behavior that is, we attribute causes to behavior. Factors in the social environment that are important to health include those related to safety, violence, and social disorder in general, and more specific factors related to the type, quality, and stability of social connections, including social participation, social cohesion, social capital, and the collective efficacy of the neighborhood. Pain is a dynamic and complex experience that involves the interaction of biological, physical, psychological, social, and environmental factors that are specific to each individual pain may be acute, acute on chronic, recurrent, chronic/persistent, and occur at any stage across the lifespan. It is well appreciated that parent and family factors may inﬂuence the pain experience of children (palermo & chambers, 2005) research has shown that parenting a.
-low social support (pushing away social sypport can cause you to physically feel more pain) -possibility of being compensated for pain through disability claims -social reinforcement for pain behaviors (increased attention, caring, sympathy may cause an individual to exhibit a higher response the next time they feel pain to get that response. Home is the first socialising agency the congenial home environment has a positive and socialising effect on the child thus, the family influence plays a vital role in the process of social development a happy, contented and well-knit family helps in advancing social adjustment of the individual. As noted by drs steven j linton and william s shaw in physical therapy, the journal of the american physical therapy association, the experience of pain is shaped by a host of psychological factors.
Psychological factors, such as examinations in school and problems in social relation- ships, and life changes, such as the death of a loved one, divorce, or a job termination they also include daily hassles, such as traffic jams, and physical environmental factors. Psychosocial and functional aspects of social, or environmental factors change, can have a major influence on individuals' experience of the condition as. Social psychologists view compliance as a means of social influence used to reach goals or attain social or personal gains group strength, group size, immediacy, and similarity are all factors that can influence compliance in an individual.